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Conflict in Ukraine: Half 4 – Are There Neo-Nazis in Ukraine?


That is half 4 of my collection on the Russian invasion of Ukraine, you’ll be able to learn the opposite components right here.

In his speech declaring struggle on Ukraine, the (not so nice) dictator of Russia, Vladimir Putin, stated the objective of his “particular operation” was the demilitarization and de-Nazification of Ukraine and ridding it of drug addicts. The objective of demilitarization made sense, at the very least from Putin’s perspective – he needed a regime change. He’d take away the democratically elected authorities and set up a Russia-friendly puppet authorities as a substitute, thus increasing the facility and affect of the Russian empire. 

However de-Nazification? 

Putin made it sound like Ukraine is swarming with Nazis. However Putin was not speaking to me or my Western readers; this speech was directed to the Russian individuals. A big majority in Russia is satisfied that the Russian Military is doing God’s work, eradicating from energy neo-Nazis that had been committing genocide in Ukraine and particularly East Ukraine (I mentioned this partially 3 of this collection). To my shock, I discovered that almost all of my center faculty pals in Russia consider this, too.

This was inconceivable to me. How might Ukrainians, who, based mostly on my interactions with them, had been culturally indistinguishable from Russians, instantly grew to become Nazis? I needed to know the place this neo-Nazis perception was coming from. I spent extra time than I’d prefer to admit studying and watching Putin’s propaganda to know it. 

All propaganda normally has a kernel of fact. To grasp that tiny kernel of fact about neo-Nazis in Ukraine, we now have to return to the start of the 20th century. That century was terribly unkind to Ukraine, simply because it was to most European nations. Ukraine discovered itself caught between two empires, the Austro-Hungarian and Russian, that fought one another and stepped throughout Ukraine. Its individuals had been always victimized. Ukraine fought the Poles within the Polish-Ukrainian Conflict in 1918. After which the Ukrainians grew to become casualties of each the Purple (Bolshevik) and White (anti-Bolshevik) factions through the Soviet revolution.

Because the Soviets got here to energy, issues received loads worse. Within the early Thirties a few quarter of the nation died from starvation, a disaster that went into the historical past books because the Holodomor or Nice Famine. The Holodomor was brought on by the “good” insurance policies of Joseph Stalin. Ukraine on the time was a largely agrarian society – over 80% of the inhabitants lived on farms. Stalin’s nice concept was to collectivize the farms. All land was expropriated from its farmers and put right into a collective referred to as Kolhoz (an acronym loosely translated as “collective farm”). Farmers grew to become laborers on the lands they used to personal. Those that refused to surrender their farms had been referred to as “kulaki” (which interprets as “tight-fisted”) – they had been shot. 

When everyone owns the whole lot, no person owns something. You aren’t going to have soul within the recreation while you labor for the collective good, an summary idea. Manufacturing from the collective farms was drastically decrease than once they had been privately owned, whereas Bolsheviks had been amassing “the vig,” based mostly on pre-collectivization output. Add some unhealthy climate into the combination, Ukraine starved, as hundreds of thousands of individuals died from starvation (I’ve seen figures as excessive as eight million). As an apart, when politicians who by no means spent a minute operating a enterprise come out with social-redistribution or financial insurance policies, consider Comrade Stalin and the way his theoretically possible insurance policies failed in observe and killed hundreds of thousands of individuals. 

In photos of starved Ukrainians from this period, they appear no completely different from prisoners at Auschwitz. Ukrainians usually have a look at Holodomor as Russian genocide in opposition to Ukrainians. I’m not a historian, however it appears that evidently Stalin’s insurance policies weren’t directed particularly in the direction of Ukraine but additionally impacted Russia and Kazakhstan. The Ukrainians had been additionally terrorized and abused by those that collected their wheat. They had been usually killed if they didn’t report all wheat that was collected. Evidently, many Ukrainians appeared on the Soviets as oppressors. 

I’m making an attempt to simplify a really advanced historical past in only a few paragraphs, and I’m describing Ukraine as a monolithic nation. It’s something however. It’s a nation that usually holds reverse views on points in numerous components of the nation. Hold that in thoughts whereas studying this. 

Initially of WWII, when the German Military entered Ukraine, some Ukrainians (particularly within the western a part of the nation) checked out Germans as “the enemy of my enemy is my good friend.” They welcomed the Germans as their liberators from Soviet oppression. Some joined the Nazis and have become their henchmen, exhibiting cruelty just like that of the Nazis. Russian propaganda won’t ever allow you to neglect that. 

Additionally, as we speak we have a look at Nazis as heartless aggressors who killed hundreds of thousands of individuals and perpetrated the Holocaust, and deservingly so. However we benefit from hindsight. On the opening of WWII, Jap Europeans didn’t know what would ensue. This had not been the expertise of Jap European populations once they handled the Germans through the First World Conflict. 

I learn Sam Zell’s fantastic autobiography, Am I Being Too Delicate? Sam’s Jewish family didn’t need to go away Poland in 1939. They weren’t afraid of Germans, as a result of the final time they had been occupied by Germany, throughout WWI, the Germans handled them nicely. Fortunately, Sam’s father traveled round Europe and realized that Hitler’s Germany was a lot completely different from the one twenty years earlier than. Sam’s household left Poland hours earlier than their city received bombed by the Germans. 

However I nonetheless should stress this level: The vast majority of Ukrainians, together with my grandfather, fought in opposition to the Nazis. They had been no much less courageous than the Russians, and plenty of gave their lives to liberate the world from Nazism. Once more, Ukraine is a big and numerous nation. 

Ukraine’s darkish historical past provides loads of materials for Putin’s propaganda machine to work with. However many nations have darkish histories. Let’s take the US, as an example. If Putin’s propagandists needed to persuade Russians to invade America to liberate Black individuals from “racist neo-Nazi White People,” our historical past would supply loads of uncooked materials, too. 

Putin’s propaganda documentary would begin with slavery. It might inform you that the founding fathers of America owned individuals as non-public property. It might go on to inform you that racism is embedded within the DNA of our structure. The documentary would have historians narrating and showcasing the horrible lives African-People had within the US for hundreds of years. None of them can be mendacity. There can be movies that includes the KKK lynching and tar-and-feathering Blacks. The movie would present footage from the Nineteen Fifties—not that way back—of segregated public services with indicators “Whites solely.”

Then the documentary would fast-forward to latest occasions. You’d see video clips of police capturing Blacks within the again or choking them to demise. Or of final yr’s BLM and anti-BLM protests, just like the one in Charlottesville. Then it will combine in some footage of Hitler after which of neo-Nazis marching in Nazi regalia, brandishing torches and giving the “sieg heil!” salute – there are many these movies circulating within the US, too. After you had been finished watching this movie, in the event you had been a kindhearted Russian, your blood would boil with anger and disgust towards White People. 

This propaganda video would rigorously filter out any constructive developments which have occurred in our nation up to now century: the civil rights motion, the top of segregation, and common public outcry from all corners of our society in opposition to anti-Black racism. It might not present that as a rustic we progressed, we modified, we improved. 

The propaganda machine wouldn’t cease with one documentary. Russian TV would feed you little clips of White People exhibiting neo-Nazis tendencies a number of occasions a day on the one and solely authorities information channel. Entrepreneurs know that so that you can keep in mind a message after which to consider it, it needs to be repeated many occasions. The propaganda machine would deliver a Hubble telescope to bear on each racial injustice that has ever been perpetrated in our nation. It might enlarge them a lot that in the event you had by no means been within the US, you’d consider that Black individuals are so oppressed as we speak that there’s little distinction between their therapy by White People 2 hundred years in the past and as we speak. I’m by no means glossing over the numerous evident and painful examples of racism in our present society. However, by the point Russian propaganda was finished with you, you’d be satisfied that Black individuals are afraid to go grocery buying and that White People all put on KKK hoods as a substitute of baseball caps. 

Russian propaganda doesn’t cease at simply dredging up darkish historical past that has little semblance to present actuality. It makes up tales and phases faux occasions. Let me provide you with a really actual instance from Ukraine. After I wrote half 1 of this collection, a reader from Russia despatched me a video with the topic line “And also you say there are not any neo-Nazis in Ukraine.” I watched the video, and I couldn’t consider my eyes. Then I googled and located a number of respected newspapers writing about it. Here’s what The Occasions of Israel wrote about it:

[The video shows] consumers climbing up and down the staircase [in a shopping mall in Kyiv], whose middle-section stairs characteristic a big swastika locked in a white rhombus encircled by crimson, just like Nazi Germany’s flag. The road the place the shopping center is situated is on the road named for Stepan Bandera, a Ukrainian nationalist who briefly collaborated with Nazi Germany in its struggle in opposition to Russia.

Word the Stepan Bandera reference; it will be important. I’ll handle him quickly.

I stored wanting and located the identical story in all places. After which I discovered an rationalization of what had occurred:

The LED stairs of the “Horodok” shopping center in Kyiv lit up with a large swastika for a couple of minutes on 16 February 2019. The stunning show bewildered consumers, and after a number of minutes, safety turned off the facility of the LED lights. Horodok’s administration apologized for the incident and claimed their computer systems had been hacked.

We’ll by no means know whether or not the LED show was hacked by a Russian disinformation operation or Ukrainian neo-Nazis. The purpose is, this video would have you ever consider {that a} gigantic Nazi swastika in a shopping center within the middle of Kyiv is simply one other day in Ukraine. In fact, it’s something however. Displaying swastika is against the law within the Ukraine. The identical newspaper I quote above wrote the next: “On 21 February, Ukraine’s safety service opened a prison probe into the swastika present beneath p.1 of article 426-1 of Ukraine’s prison code, which prohibits propaganda of Nazi and Communist ideology.”

This is only one of many examples the place Russian propaganda tries to painting Ukrainians as neo-Nazis. 

We can not focus on the subject of neo-Nazism in Ukraine and never focus on Stepan Bandera. You hear Bandera’s identify on Russian TV nonstop. In truth, they’ll name Ukrainians “Banderovtsi,” which suggests, to them “Russia- and Soviet-hating, Jew-killing neo-Nazis.”

Stepan Bandera fought for the independence of Ukraine and have become the top of the Group of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in 1933. He orchestrated the assassination of the Polish minister of the inside, for which he was sentenced to demise. The Nazis invaded Poland and Bandera escaped from jail.

Bandera collaborated intently with Nazi Germany. The Nazis led him to consider that Ukraine would get its independence beneath German rule. The Nazis broke their promise shortly after the invasion of Ukraine. Afraid that Bandera would begin a revolt in opposition to Germany, they arrested him in June 1941. Bandera spent most of WWII in a German focus camp. Whereas he was there, his group, OUN, preventing on Germany’s facet, dedicated atrocities in opposition to Russians, Jews, and Poles, murdering as many as 100,000 individuals. Bandera was assassinated by the KGB in 1959.

Jewish individuals suffered from pogroms (organized massacres) throughout Europe for hundreds of years. Most governments all through Europe both inspired it or closed their eyes. Ukraine was not any completely different. Nevertheless, Lenin put in place an anti-pogrom coverage. This is the reason loads of Jews joined the Soviets. Since Soviets had been the enemy, and thus so had been Jews, this gave Ukrainians one more reason to hate Jews. (Being Jewish, the primary cause nonetheless escapes me.) Here’s what Bandera stated about Jews: “The Jews within the USSR represent essentially the most trustworthy help of the ruling Bolshevik regime, and the vanguard of Muscovite imperialism in Ukraine.” I hate discovering a nuance in somebody hating a race (my race), however his hatred of Jews was very completely different from Hitler’s perception that “Jews are an inferior race.”

After we focus on Bandera we have to outline two phrases, nationalist and patriot. We’re getting into into the murky entrails of social science. Patriotism usually carries a constructive connotation and nationalism a destructive one, although till the twentieth century they each meant the identical factor. They’ve a standard core: love of and dedication to 1’s nation. A patriot desires sovereignty for his nation. A nationalist is commonly patriot who consider within the superiority (exceptionalism) of his or her nation or race, as was the case with the Nazis). A whole lot of nationalists will tolerate minorities so long as they don’t intervene with the bulk – that was the case with Bandera. Nazis are a contemporary instance of an excessive case of nationalism. Nevertheless, the strains between the 2 phrases usually get blurry, as you’ll see. 

Was Bandera a nationalist or a patriot? We all know he needed an impartial Ukraine, as any patriot would. Nevertheless, since along with Ukrainian independence he needed to rid all different nationalities from Ukraine, that will make him a nationalist. Bandera is a polarizing determine in Ukraine. A 3rd of the nation has a destructive picture of him as a murderous nationalist and a 3rd a constructive one as a fighter for Ukraine’s independence (I get the sensation those that suffered essentially the most from the Soviets belong to this group). He’s unpopular in Jap Ukraine (the territory nearer to Russia) and extremely popular (a 76% favorable ranking) in Western Ukraine.

In 2015, Ukraine handed a legislation centered on the de-communization of Ukraine, which resulted within the elimination of Soviet monuments and the renaming of 52,000 streets beforehand named after Soviets, changing them with the names of Ukrainian historic figures. The legislation gave loads of uncooked materials to Putin’s propaganda machine. First, Russians, who, identical to Ukrainians, suffered large losses throughout WWII, are very delicate to something regarding WWII. If you wish to get right into a bar struggle with nearly any Russian, inform them that the People, by opening a second entrance, helped to win WWII. 

Because of Russian propaganda reminding them about it a number of occasions a day, Russians are insulted by Ukrainians eradicating from their streets the names of Soviet generals who fought the Nazis. Additionally, since they see Bandera solely as a Nazi sympathizer, they painting this transfer as Ukraine reverting to its pure state of being neo-Nazi and thus exhibiting its true colours. However right here’s an vital level: This legislation additionally banned Nazi symbols.

I attempted to debate this subject with my classmates from Russia. I’d inform them that I understood that that they had a problem with Bandera (I’m not a fan, both). However I might see how some Ukrainians have a look at him because the fighter for his or her independence that this nation all the time wanted. This doesn’t make Ukrainians robotically neo-Nazis; in any case, (paraphrasing Forrest Gump), a Nazi is what a Nazi does. 

Irony arises once I ask my Russian classmates, don’t you assume that what Stalin did to Russians, Ukrainians, and the remainder of the Soviet Union was exponentially worse than what Bandera did? In spite of everything, Stalin killed twenty million individuals within the Soviet Union. He beheaded prime ranks of the Soviet Military (identical to Putin, or any dictator, he was afraid of robust leaders), which resulted in a lot higher losses of life within the Soviet Union throughout WWII. I’d inform them, you criticize Ukrainians for naming streets after Stepan Bandera, however Joseph Stalin is in vogue once more in Russia and his statues are popping up all around the nation. My Russian center faculty pals tended to answer that Stalin was a posh, non unusual particular person. 

After which there’s the Azov Battalion. This identify pops up in each different dialog and Putin’s propaganda. The Azov Battalion is called after the Azov Sea. It began out as a personal militia funded and shaped by a Ukrainian oligarch to struggle off the Russian invasion of Jap Ukraine. On the time of its formation the Ukrainian Military was very weak, and the formation of the battalion appeared like an act of desperation. Russians are terrified by this battalion, because it fought efficiently within the second assault of Mariupol in 2014. (Mariupol is the town being became rubble by Putin’s bombing as we speak.) In 2015 the Azov Battalion was folded into the Ukrainian Nationwide Guard. It stays one of many best-trained items in Ukraine. I’ve learn experiences that the battalion has been skilled by the US. Its sole objective is to defend Ukraine from Russia.

There’s loads of uncooked materials right here for Russian propaganda. The insignia of the battalion considerably resembles a swastika, although the battalion denies that. It says that it derives from a Ukrainian image that dates again to 1918. Name me a skeptic. Extra importantly, at one level as many as 20% of its members recognized themselves as neo-Nazi sympathizers.

I struggled with Azov for a very long time, after which had this perception: Think about my neighborhood is overrun by invaders (zombies, in the event you like). My next-door neighbor is a neo-Nazi, wears a Nazi swastika, lights a candle day by day to Adolph Hitler, and bakes a cake for Hitler’s birthday. We, my neighbor and I, take up arms to struggle these invaders, who’re decided to kill our households. At this level I don’t care what beliefs my neighbor holds, I simply need to be sure that he has a gun and is aware of how one can use it. We don’t share the identical values (an understatement), however at this level we’re united by the identical objective. My neighbor could also be a nationalist, he might imagine our neighborhood is superior to others (although he doesn’t do something about it), however at this level we’re each patriots preventing to guard our family members. 

That is precisely how I view the neo-Nazi 20% of the Azov Battalion. At this time they share the identical objective as the remainder of the battalion and 100% of the nation: Free Ukraine from the Russian invaders who’re killing their family members and leveling their cities. Additionally, I’ve to remind you that the Azov Battalion is a battalion, not the entire military. I’ve seen numbers that it has 900 troopers, so within the worst case 180 are sympathetic to neo-Nazis; however the Ukrainian Military has 1 / 4 of 1,000,000 individuals, so 180 is a rounding error. Russian propaganda would have you ever consider that 20% of that battalion is the entire Ukrainian Military.

As a lot as Russians would like to level to neo-Nazis within the Azov Battalion, they need to have a look at their very own ranks. In 2015, Russia (unofficially) despatched their army to help Russian separatists in Jap Ukraine preventing the Ukrainian Military. Putin additionally despatched a Russian neo-Nazi group, the Russian Imperial Motion. I used to be going to say that Russian-sponsored neo-Nazis are a transparent occasion of nationalists, not patriots, however then I noticed that they’re simply neo-Nazis thugs employed to kill Ukrainians. 

(When you’d prefer to study extra in regards to the Azov Battalion, these two movies present an goal overview: one and two.)

“Is there a neo-Nazi downside in Ukraine?” I’d ask my Ukrainian pals (who I used to be fairly sure weren’t neo-Nazis). They’d be considerably puzzled by it, as if that they had not given it a lot thought, simply as you’d draw a clean look in the event you requested me or any of my pals in Denver (or most of my readers, most likely) the identical query in regards to the US. I do know I’d be puzzled by it. I see occasional clips on TV of white supremacists having political rallies. There was a tragic capturing at a synagogue in Pittsburgh in 2018, which has now been shuffled in my reminiscence with a dozen of different mass shootings unrelated to neo-Nazis which have occurred since. I’ve learn that anti-Semitism is on the rise within the US and Europe. However when my spouse and youngsters and I am going to synagogue, I don’t fear about our security. Fortunately. 

However then I learn that nearly one out of ten People thinks it’s acceptable to carry neo-Nazi views. I don’t know a single a type of “one out of ten.” I doubt lots of my pals and readers do, both. Possibly these “one out of ten” fall outdoors of our myopic circles (I mentioned the idea of myopic circles right here) and regular, sort hearted, civilized individuals don’t normally affiliate themselves with scum (I’m not apologetic about it). Or simply possibly, these “one out of ten” are round us and so they simply don’t publicize their neo-Nazi sympathies. 

In 2019 Ukraine held democratic elections. 73% of the nation voted to elect a Jewish president in a rustic that additionally had a Jewish prime minister. Ukrainians have to be a novel breed of neo-Nazis, as Ukraine is the one nation on this planet whose head of presidency and head of state are Jewish (outdoors of Israel). By the best way, in the identical election, the far proper get together received solely 2.3% of the vote. So no, Ukraine doesn’t have a neo-Nazi downside. Identical to any Western nation, Ukraine is affected by the neo-Nazi most cancers, however it represents solely a tiny portion of the society. 

I used to be speaking to an expensive childhood good friend who lives in Russia, and he informed me one thing that caught with me. He stated, “The issue with Russians is, we don’t apologize.” I didn’t perceive it on the time, however then I chanced on this speech by the Ukrainian prime minister to Israel’s Knesset in 2015, apologizing to the Jewish individuals for the function Ukrainian collaborators performed in executing 33,000 Jews in lower than two days through the Babi Yar in 1941.

That apology won’t deliver these perished souls again. However it’s going to do two issues: It’s an admission and it takes possession of this occasion. Which will sound like a little bit factor, however it’s not. We reside in a society the place historical past is written not by the man with a pen however by the man holding a gun to the top of the man with a pen. Historical past is consistently being rewritten – in Russia, Stalin went from being a monster to celebrated hero once more in lower than twenty years. An apology by a president of a rustic cements fact into the historical past books. Although it’s not a assure, it reduces the possibilities of repeating an atrocity sooner or later. Neo-Nazis don’t make apologies like that. 

For the final three weeks, as I used to be engaged on this four-part essay collection, I deepened my appreciation of so many issues we take as a right within the Western world: democracy, free elections, due course of, and the rule of legislation, however particularly these two issues: freedom of speech and a free press. 

At this time in Russia, individuals are put in jail not only for talking in opposition to this struggle however for merely calling this “particular operation” in Ukraine a struggle. Taking part in a peaceable demonstration or posting an image of killed Ukrainian civilians on social media may even land you in jail. After which there’s freedom of the press, which dies with out freedom of speech. That is precisely what has occurred (once more) in Russia. 

Propaganda coupled with the dismantling of the free press has created a weapon of mass distraction. This mixture is extremely harmful; it provides a dictatorial authorities limitless energy over the thoughts of its individuals. It permits authorities to exactly curate what individuals assume and thus offers an nearly limitless carte blanche for presidency actions – that is what allowed the unthinkable, barbaric struggle in opposition to Ukraine. 

Propaganda strips away all impartial pondering, turning individuals into senseless drones. Propaganda works by inflicting our proper (emotional) mind to overwhelm our left (analytical) one. The extra you “assume” together with your proper mind, the much less pondering you do. Over time, feelings evoked by propaganda forestall you from objectively analyzing the topic at hand. You’ve got a tough time telling what’s true and what’s not. Over time, peer strain units in, and it’s exhausting to be the one enlightened one. That is how individuals get zombified.

I keep in mind watching The Strolling Useless – that present a few zombie apocalypse. This second caught with me. A husband sees his wife-turned-zombie strolling down the road. He runs as much as her and tries to speak to this shell of an individual. He desperately makes an attempt to enchantment to any particle of soul left within the physique of what was his spouse. He can not get by means of to her. She is lifeless. He’s speaking to an empty shell. Unusually sufficient, that is the expertise I had once I tried speaking to Russians zombified by Putin’s propaganda about Ukraine and neo-Nazis in Ukraine. This expertise is just not distinctive to me. I’ve examine and met younger Russian adults who’ve had this expertise with their dad and mom, who had been in any other case clever individuals and nonetheless are in the case of different components of life. 

When you look deep sufficient into the historical past of just about any nation, you’ll discover darkish, tragic holes in it. However we aren’t our historical past. We aren’t our previous. We’re what we study from it. We’re our actions as we speak. Ukraine had a tragic and painful historical past, however in contrast to Russia, it has realized from it. 

Ukraine’s fault was that it was a budding democracy proper subsequent to a shriveling, dictatorial ex-empire. Putin couldn’t reside with the truth that a democracy subsequent door, a rustic that didn’t need to reside beneath his thumb, additionally needed to embrace Western values. It additionally dared to try to prosper whereas the ex-empire beneath his rule grew to become a bit much less related day by day. 

The dictator subsequent door wanted an excuse to invade Ukraine. The nonexistent risk of NATO appeared like one. But it surely was not sufficient justification for beginning a struggle and killing individuals who look identical to his personal inhabitants. He needed to dehumanize the individuals he was about to kill. He satisfied his populace that by his bombing cities and killing Ukrainians by the hundreds, the Russian Military was doing God’s work and de-Nazifying the nation – he even threw within the bonus that he’d additionally eliminate drug addicts. (I’ll contact on that subsequent.) 

In all honesty, neither an excuse to invade nor his dehumanization marketing campaign actually mattered. With the thoughts management his propaganda has over Russians, given sufficient time he might have satisfied them he was de-Marsifying Ukraine from Martians. 

One final word: 

In his speech Putin stated that along with de-Nazification he’d be ridding Ukraine of drug addicts. My shut childhood good friend informed me an fascinating story about this. One week into the struggle, Volodymyr Zelensky was giving an interview to the Western media, and he was falling asleep. For a number of days Russian propaganda replayed this clip. For a number of hours a day the propaganda machine paraded a military of psychologists and drug habit specialists to clarify to the thirsty-for-knowledge Russian public that this Jewish neo-Nazi (the brand new sort) was behaving identical to a typical drug addict. In fact, any particular person with only a slight consciousness of the state of affairs wouldn’t want a military of specialists to inform them what was occurring with Zelensky – he was terribly sleep-deprived. 

However right here is the place the fascinating half is available in. My good friend was speaking to his mother-in-law. She was telling him how Zelensky is a drug addict. He requested her, “Don’t you assume he’s simply quick on sleep as a result of his nation is at struggle?” She gave him a puzzled look. He continued, “The place do you assume Zelensky is?” She replied, “In Poland, together with his household.” My good friend threw up his arms and stated “I hand over!”  I relaxation my case.

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